Skip to content



Aspect is otherwise called “tense contour”, it provides inner structure of event.

RTR Retrospective#

usually used together with Perspective.

Retrospective + Monadic: ANOTHER has already done it.

Retrospective + Unbounded: ANOTHER did it (Past Simple tense).

Retrospective + Unbounded + Gnomic + Abstract: ANOTHER did it and it's always been like that.

PRS Prospective#

usually used together with Perspective.

Prospective + Monadic: ANOTHER will do it.

Prospective + Unbounded: ANOTHER will have done it.

Prospective + Gnomic+Abstract: ANOTHER will do it and it will always be like that.

HAB Habitual#


Habitual + Monadic: ANOTHER always does THIS. ANOTHER continues to do THIS

Habitual + Unbounded: ANOTHER used to do THIS.

PRG Progressive#

THIS event is in progress.

You caught me in the midst of reading this grammar.

PCS Precessive#

THIS just happened.

I just saw my old teacher.

IMM Imminent#

THIS is about to start.

REG Regulative#

ANOTHER is involved, engaged in THIS activity.

EPR Experiential#

THIS happens in participant's experience.

He is never healthy.

He has good sleep sometimes.

PAU Pausal#

THIS action is on pause but the actor is implied to have intention to resume it later.

Take a break from your hard work!

CSS Cessative#

THIS event is stopped.

He stopped breathing.

RCS Recessative#

THIS event is stopped again after a previous stop.

The car stopped moving again.

RSM Resumptive#

THIS event is resumed.

She started talking again.

RGR Regressive#

The action of CONTEXT happens again by the will of ANOTHER actor after a break.

He returned to his duties after a disease.

PCL Preclusive#

THIS happens all in one act.

He ran to the finish without stopping.

And she just lifted the rock in one attempt.

IMD Intermediative#

THIS happens at some point of the CONTEXT event.

CNT Continuative#

THIS event continues.

She kept on singing.

She no longer practices yoga.

He stayed under the rain waiting for his dog.

ICS Incessative#

THIS event goes on without stopping.

And he was trying to lift it on and on.

PMP Preemptive#

THIS happens once / for the first time / at last.

CLM Climactic#

THIS happens for the last time, finally.

They managed to eliminate ecological problems of the region once and for all.

PTC Protractive#

THIS happens for a long time. When used with root specifying short durations implies THIS happens for too long.

Protractive + Contextual: THIS happens for too long

Protractive + Punctual: THIS happens for too long

It was raining all week long.

TMP Temporary#

THIS happens only in the present CONTEXT.

I will leave it here for now.

MTV Motive#

THIS happens without ANOTHER's presence in CONTEXT.

He went off for a walk with the dog to the mountains.

SQN Sequential#

THIS is an event of sequential stages forming a complete process or cycle.

The generation dies off, so that the next cycle can start.

Mark the elements off and report to the boss.

CSQ Consequential#

THIS actions proceeds despite possible undesired consequences.

He nevertheless entered the cage with the lion.

EPD Expeditive#

THIS happens in haste.

He put clothes on in a hurry.

DCL Disclusive#

ANOTHER appears to be THIS.

He happened to be a spy.

CCL Conclusive#

THIS is a direct consequence of the ATTACHED event.

He ended up drowning by walking on the thin ice.

CUL Culminative#

THIS is a direct consequence of the long-lasting complex ATTACHED event.

Eventually, he had to contact the police.

TRD Tardative#

THIS loses its intensity over time.

The sunlight is slowly fading out.

I enjoy teaching children less.

TNS Transitional#

ANOTHER actor prepares themselves to get involved in THIS action.

I'm getting used to your techniques.

ITC Intercommutative#

THIS is a ricochet action triggered by the ATTACHED event.

And I hit him back.

And she laughed in reply.

CSM Consumptive#

THIS action is all the CONTEXT event is about.

He stood for three hours only waiting for her.


RTR already/simple past with unbounded

PRS +M will; +U will have; +N/A from now on

HAB used to

PRG in the middle of -ing

IMM just about to

PCS happened just now

REG involved/engaged in doing

EPR at some point in one's experience

RSM resumed doing

CSS stopped doing

RCS stopped doing again

PAU paused in/take a break from

RGR returned after a hiatus

PCL all in one go

CNT keep on/still; not anymore when negative

ICS continues on and on

PMP just for once/at last

CLM once and for all/for the last time

PTC for a long period of time; +CONTEXTUAL or +PUNCTUAL means long-delayed

TMP for the time being

MTV brb doing something

CSQ go ahead and do something anyway

SQN to do a series of actions as a single event "He's checking off each item..."

EPD hurry up and

DCL turn out to be

CCL end up/reach the point where

CUL eventually/in the end

IMD takes place at some point

TRD to get tired of doing

TNS to take up/to start to

ITC to do something back ("The boy threw it back")

CSM spend one's time


Note that an experimental set of predicates to describe Phase was introduced at The set allows scoping of Phase.

CTX Contextual#

THIS is a single act, not a point event, happens once, not iterated, duration is not considered.

paroi, paroi ze'a

PUN Punctual#

THIS is a point perfective event.

It exploded.

It was a lightning.

The car collided.

He stabbed her.

And then a click sound happened.


ITR Iterative#

THIS is a repetition of a Punctual event in a regular staccato manner.

And she played staccato.

The alarm started ringing.

za'uroi je di'i co'i

REP Repetitive#

THIS is a repetition of a Contextual event in a regular staccato manner.

I heard the honk repeated several times.

za'uroi je di'i, za'uroi je di'i ze'a

ITM Intermittent#

THIS is an Iterative event but with some Punctual events standing apart between contextually meaningful intervals.

Each refrain starts with a click sound.

RCT Recurrent#

THIS is a repetition of a Contextual event in a regular staccato manner but with the Contextual events standing apart between contextually meaningful interval.

The sound of a cuckoo was heard several times while we were eating dinner.

FRE Frequentative#

An Iterative event X is repeated, each instance of X is separated by meaningful intervals and thus make up THIS event. THIS is of Contextual type.

FRG Fragmentative#

Irregularly repeated Punctual events form THIS Contextual event.

ze'a di'inai co'i

FLC Fluctuative#

THIS is a series of irregularly repeated Punctual and non-punctual events.

The building was on fire with short explosions that were followed by the tongues of fire licking the wood. And that was happening here and there.


STA Stative#

THIS is in a non-causative non-dynamic state. Suitable for describing physical states like temperature of state of mind.

She smiles due to a disease.

DYN Dynamic#

THIS is in a causative/dynamic state. “Do some action”, “carry a function”, “perform activity”.

She smiled at him.

MNF Manifestive#

THIS is a manifestation of identity.

Plato is a human.

My uncle is a president.

me, jarco

DSC Descriptive#

THIS shows appearance in THIS-UNDECORATED manner. Adjective-like description.

Usage examples#

I'm happy because of Ithkuil. Ithkuil makes me happy.

I'm happy (Stative) because Ithkuil exists.

I show happiness (Dynamic) because of Ithkuil.

STA: A state of eating a mango.

DYN: Eat a mango.

MNF: to be a mango being eaten.

DSC: to be like a mango being eaten.

DYN: I plant a tree.

STA: The tree is being planted.

MNF: It's a tree being planted.

DSC: It looks to me like a tree being planted.


Note that in the following examples the choice of metalinguistic indicator sei as opposed to fi'o/noi'a/poi'a/soi'a is up to you.

FAC Factual#

THIS is certain without any ATTACHED presuppositions.

His dog is big (it's known that there is his dog and that it's big).

pa sei fatci se'u gerku pe ra cu barda sei fatci

SUB Subjunctive#

The ATTACHED presupposition is certain but CONTEXT itself is not. Use Bias or Validation to make factuality clear.

Maybe his dog is big. (it's known that there is his dog but it's not know if it's big)

pa sei fatci se'u gerku pe ra cu barda ju'ocu'i

ASM Assumptive#

The ATTACHED presupposition is uncertain.

If and only if he has a dog then it's big.

SPC Speculative#

both the ATTACHED presupposition and CONTEXT is uncertain.

Maybe he has a dog and if he does then maybe it's big.

COU Counterfactive#

The ATTACHED presupposition is false or counterfactual. But if it were true then CONTEXT would also be true.

His dog would have been big by now. But he has no dog.

[?] je'unai

HYP Hypothetical#

The ATTACHED presupposition is counterfactual and CONTEXT might be true or not.

His dog might have grown big by now. But he has no dog.

IPL Implicative#

The factuality of CONTEXT depends on the factuality of the ATTACHED presupposition. See Wikipedia article for more information.

His dog must be big by now.

ASC Ascriptive#

same as Implicative but CONTEXT is uncertain.

His dog might be big by now (e.g. because he has lots of food at home)


PRC Processual#

the goal/end state of the CONTEXT process is not focused if present at all.

CPT Completive#

the CONTEXT process is intended to succeed/finish as expected.

Usage examples#

Processual and Completive.

I studied Ithkuil and mastered it.

I tried and I succeeded.

I chased the Rabbit and caught it.

I was eating the mango and ate it all up.

I was crashing the house and totally destroyed it.

I used all the petrol up.

I searched for a perfect language and found it.

mo'u [?] uo

INE Ineffectual#

there is an intention in CONTEXT for Processual and is not yet successful or unsuccessful.

I tried to eat the mango but couldn't.

INC Incompletive#

there is an intention in CONTEXT for Completive but is unsuccessful.

I tried to eat the mango up but couldn't.

PST Positive#

there is an intention in CONTEXT for Processual and is successful.

I succeeded in eating the mango.

EFC Effective#

there is an intention in CONTEXT for Completive and is successful.

I succeeded in eating the mango up.


Lojban translations are mostly done by la gejyspa

ASU Assurative#

CONTEXT is certain to SPEAKER.

Of course, for sure


HPB Hyperbolic#

CONTEXT is an exaggeration on part of SPEAKER.

That's totally not what I expected.

[?] ba'u

COI Coincidental#

CONTEXT is a case of serendipity according to SPEAKER.

Luckily, I wasn't there at that time.


ACP Acceptive#

CONTEXT is to be generally accepted according to SPEAKER.

Like it or not but it's that way.

[?] si'au

RAC Reactive#

CONTEXT is a surprise to SPEAKER. CONTEXT causes astonishment in SPEAKER.

Oh. My. Goodness!


ue, u'e

STU Stupefactive#

CONTEXT causes wonder or reflection, awe in SPEAKER.

Who would've thought he could find her.


CTV Contemplative#

CONTEXT causes puzzlement in SPEAKER, can still be a discovery, just that the discovery is perplexing.

Hm. How odd…

Wat? Huh?

uanai, ue

DPV Desperative#

CONTEXT causes despair in SPEAKER, bad news coming.


RVL Revelative#

CONTEXT is a discovery to SPEAKER.

Aha! Eureka!


GRT Gratificative#

CONTEXT is a pleasure bliss to SPEAKER.

How nice...

oinai ui o'u

SOL Solicitive#

CONTEXT is requested by SPEAKER.

Please … come on!

e'o, e'osai, e'e

SEL Selective#

THIS is SPEAKER's point of view on CONTEXT.

As I see it …

pe'i, se'o, zu'u

IRO Ironic#

CONTEXT is an understatement, irony on the part of SPEAKER.

Well, that's a nice haircut (but it's actually ugly to SPEAKER).

xo'o, je'unai

EXA Exasperative#

SPEAKER is exasperated. In its intensive form can describe a situation when SPEAKER is on the verge of repeating listener's words due to exasperation.

Hey, don't you understand …?


LTL Literal#

Strictly speaking...

sa'e, pe'anai

CRR Corrective#

What I actually mean...

sa'e mau'i, to'unai [?] si/sa/su group

EUP Euphemistic#

In other words ...


SKP Skeptical#

SPEAKER shows skepticism, incredibility regarding CONTEXT.

Not that one would believe in that but ...


CYN Cynical#

SPEAKER shows cynical surprise, sarcasm towards CONTEXT.


Oh yeah, sure! [sarcastically]

[?] this implies more than a “I can't believe”. u'i, ianai, xo'o, zo'odaipei

CTP Contemptive#

SPEAKER disapproves, doesn't likeCONTEXT. CONTEXT is disgusting to SPEAKER.

.oi, .a'unai, .i'anai, iunai

DSM Dismissive#

lowering of expectations in the listener.

Well, that's still okay with you.

So what?

[?] ga'inai possibly?

IDG Indignative#



Repeat once again, you want me to … ?!

Ehm, what?

je'enai, ke'o [?] ki'a

SGS Suggestive#

SPEAKER suggests CONTEXT as a mental construct.

Imagine this…

What if we …

Let's assume we ...

ru'a, da'i+conditionals

PPV Propositive#

CONTEXT is a proposal, suggestion on behalf of SPEAKER.

How about a picnic next weekend?

I'm suggesting it one last time. Take it or leave it.

e'u, pei


Modality determines types of imaginary/non-imaginary events like those described by:

ANOTHER wants/needs/asks to DO THIS.

ANOTHER may/can/must/should DO THIS.

ANOTHER chooses to DO THIS (non-imaginary).

ANOTHER believes that THIS happens.

ANOTHER is usually Activative, THIS usually changes Essence, Perspective and Modality at the same time (e.g. Abstract Perspective, Representative (if imaginary) Essence).

DES Desiderative#

ANOTHER Activative wants THIS to happen, ANOTHER Activative has a desire for THIS to happen.

ASP Aspirative#

ANOTHER Activative wishes that THIS happens, ANOTHER Activative hopes that THIS happens.

EPC Expectative#

ANOTHER Activative expects THIS to happen.

CRD Credential#

ANOTHER Activative believes that THIS is true. Doesn't imply “to opine that ...”).

REQ Requisitive#

ANOTHER Activative makes a request so that THIS happens.

EXH Exhortative#

ANOTHER Activative demands for THIS to happen.

OPR Opportunitive#

ANOTHER Activative has the opportunity to do THIS.

CPC Capacitative#

ANOTHER Activative has the ability to do THIS, is capable of doing THIS, could do THIS.

PRM Permissive#

ANOTHER Activative is allowed to do THIS, has permission to do THIS, may do THIS (in having permissions).

May I come in?

PTN Potential#

It's possible that THIS happens, ANOTHER Activative can potentially be/do THIS.

The gates may open at any time.

CLS Compulsory#

ANOTHER Activative must do THIS, has to do THIS, is compulsory obliged to be/do THIS.

OBG Obligative#

ANOTHER Activative ought to be/do THIS, should do THIS.

You should tell that to your parents.

It'd be better if you were wearing a scarf.

Students shall not argue with professors.

IMS Impositive#

ANOTHER Activative is supposed to be/do THIS, is expected to do THIS.

You are not supposed to be here.

The train is to arrive in 5 minutes.

ADV Advocative#

ANOTHER Activative suggests that THIS happen, proposes that THIS happen.

ITV Intentive#

ANOTHER Activative has intention to be/do THIS, plans to do THIS..

ANT Anticipative#

ANOTHER Activative looks forward to THIS, anticipates THIS.

DSP Dispositive#

ANOTHER Activative is willing to do THIS.

PRE Preparative#

ANOTHER Activative is ready for THIS, is prepared to be/do THIS.

NEC Necessitative#

ANOTHER Activative needs to be/do THIS. It's necessary for ANOTHER Activative to be/do THIS.

DCV Decisive#

ANOTHER Activative chooses to do THIS, makes THIS choice.

PTV Proclivitive#

ANOTHER Activative tends to do/be THIS, has THIS trend, is likely to be THIS, is prone to have THIS.

VOL Voluntative#

ANOTHER Activative volunteers to do THIS, offers THIS help.

ACC Accordative#

ANOTHER Activative agrees to do THIS.

ICL Inclinative#

ANOTHER Activative is up for doing THIS, has sudden desire to do THIS.

CML Compulsive#

ANOTHER Activative has compulsion, feels a need to do THIS.

DVR Divertive#

ANOTHER Activative enjoys doing THIS, likes to do THIS.

DVT Devotive#

ANOTHER Activative is devoted, committed to doing THIS.

PFT Preferential#

ANOTHER Activative prefers THIS.

I would rather eat a mango.

IPS Impressional#

ANOTHER Activative has subjective impression that THIS is true.

I feel that he was lying to me.

PMS Promissory#

ANOTHER Activative promises that ANOTHER would do THIS.

I swear I will visit your grandmother on my way home next week.


DES to want to

ASP to hope that

EPC to expect to

CRD to believe that

REQ to request that

EXH to demand that

OPR to have the opportunity to

CPC to have the ability to

PRM to be permitted to

PTN to have the possibility of

CLS must do/have to do

OBG should/ought to

IMS be expected to

ADV suggest that

ITV intend to

ANT look forward to

DSP to be willing to

PRE be ready to

NEC be necessary to

DCV decide to/choose to

PTV tend to/be prone to

VOL offer to/volunteered to

ACC agree to

ICL feel like/be up for

CML feel driven to/feel a need to

DVR like to/enjoy

DVT be devoted to/be committed to

PFT prefer/would rather

IPS to have an impression/feel that; a subjective belief/impression

PMS to promise/swear that


Marks that and how several members of CONTEXT participate in action.

MNO Monoactive#

THIS has no other participant in the action of CONTEXT.

PRL Parallel#

ANOTHER participated in action of CONTEXT alongside THIS.

They built the house together.

One would have had the same opinion in this situation.

PTI Participative#

ANOTHER and THIS both take part in a complete action.

They both took part in the Olympic Games.

CRO Corollary#

THIS has various actions related to CONTEXT.

The team built the house (some made the basement, others made the roof etc.)

CPL Complementary#

THIS performs one side of action, and ANOTHER performs the other side. The two sides complete the action of CONTEXT.

My friend and I played chess.

She told me a fairy tale.

RCP Reciprocal#

THIS and every other example of a ANOTHER participant have reciprocal relationship.

They talk to each other.

NNR Nonrelational#

ANOTHER participates in an irrelevant to CONTEXT activity.

He helped build the house while she didn't.

DUP Duplicative#

ANOTHER performs the same activity as THIS.

I built a house and so did she.

IMT Imitative#

ANOTHER imitates, tries to take the action performed by THIS.

He built a card house for her (and she tried to reproduce it).

DEM Demonstrative#

ANOTHER shows for THIS how the action is done.

The child performed an exercise in skating after her trainer.

I showed her how to build a house.

RES Resistive#

ANOTHER avoids taking action of CONTEXT performed by THIS.

Still they took me to the zoo (although I didn't want it).

CNG Contingent#

THIS performs an action for ANOTHER to participate in the next expected state of the action.

I prepare a sauna for them (so that they may bathe).

IDC Indicative#

ANOTHER Affective or ANOTHER Dative gets understanding, meaning of the action of THIS from ANOTHER Inducive.

I read the text to them (and they got the subtext).

MUT Mutual#

ANOTHER and THIS take turns in performing the action.

Just make one step at a time.

We work every other day.