Aspect is otherwise called “tense contour”, it provides inner structure of event.
You caught me in the midst of reading this grammar.
I just saw my old teacher.
He is never healthy.
He has good sleep sometimes.
Take a break from your hard work!
He stopped breathing.
The car stopped moving again.
She started talking again.
He returned to his duties after a disease.
He ran to the finish without stopping.
And she just lifted the rock in one attempt.
She kept on singing.
She no longer practices yoga.
He stayed under the rain waiting for his dog.
And he was trying to lift it on and on.
They managed to eliminate ecological problems of the region once and for all.
It was raining all week long.
I will leave it here for now.
He went off for a walk with the dog to the mountains.
The generation dies off, so that the next cycle can start.
Mark the elements off and report to the boss.
He nevertheless entered the cage with the lion.
He put clothes on in a hurry.
He happened to be a spy.
He ended up drowning by walking on the thin ice.
Eventually, he had to contact the police.
The sunlight is slowly fading out.
I enjoy teaching children less.
I'm getting used to your techniques.
And I hit him back.
And she laughed in reply.
He stood for three hours only waiting for her.
RTR already/simple past with unbounded
PRS +M will; +U will have; +N/A from now on
HAB used to
PRG in the middle of -ing
IMM just about to
PCS happened just now
REG involved/engaged in doing
EPR at some point in one's experience
RSM resumed doing
CSS stopped doing
RCS stopped doing again
PAU paused in/take a break from
RGR returned after a hiatus
PCL all in one go
CNT keep on/still; not anymore when negative
ICS continues on and on
PMP just for once/at last
CLM once and for all/for the last time
PTC for a long period of time; +CONTEXTUAL or +PUNCTUAL means long-delayed
TMP for the time being
MTV brb doing something
CSQ go ahead and do something anyway
SQN to do a series of actions as a single event "He's checking off each item..."
EPD hurry up and
DCL turn out to be
CCL end up/reach the point where
CUL eventually/in the end
IMD takes place at some point
TRD to get tired of doing
TNS to take up/to start to
ITC to do something back ("The boy threw it back")
CSM spend one's time
It was a lightning.
The car collided.
He stabbed her.
And then a click sound happened.
And she played staccato.
The alarm started ringing.
I heard the honk repeated several times.
Each refrain starts with a click sound.
The sound of a cuckoo was heard several times while we were eating dinner.
The building was on fire with short explosions that were followed by the tongues of fire licking the wood. And that was happening here and there.
She smiles due to a disease.
She smiled at him.
Plato is a human.
My uncle is a president.
I'm happy because of Ithkuil. Ithkuil makes me happy.
I'm happy (Stative) because Ithkuil exists.
I show happiness (Dynamic) because of Ithkuil.
STA: A state of eating a mango.
DYN: Eat a mango.
MNF: to be a mango being eaten.
DSC: to be like a mango being eaten.
DYN: I plant a tree.
STA: The tree is being planted.
MNF: It's a tree being planted.
DSC: It looks to me like a tree being planted.
Note that in the following examples the choice of metalinguistic indicator
His dog is big (it's known that there is his dog and that it's big).
Maybe his dog is big. (it's known that there is his dog but it's not know if it's big)
If and only if he has a dog then it's big.
Maybe he has a dog and if he does then maybe it's big.
His dog would have been big by now. But he has no dog.
His dog might have grown big by now. But he has no dog.
His dog must be big by now.
His dog might be big by now (e.g. because he has lots of food at home)
I studied Ithkuil and mastered it.
I tried and I succeeded.
I chased the Rabbit and caught it.
I was eating the mango and ate it all up.
I was crashing the house and totally destroyed it.
I used all the petrol up.
I searched for a perfect language and found it.
I tried to eat the mango but couldn't.
I tried to eat the mango up but couldn't.
I succeeded in eating the mango.
I succeeded in eating the mango up.
Lojban translations are mostly done by la gejyspa
Of course, for sure
That's totally not what I expected.
Luckily, I wasn't there at that time.
Like it or not but it's that way.
Oh. My. Goodness!
Who would've thought he could find her.
Hm. How odd…
Please … come on!
As I see it …
Well, that's a nice haircut (but it's actually ugly to
Hey, don't you understand …?
Not that one would believe in that but ...
Oh yeah, sure! [sarcastically]
Well, that's still okay with you.
Repeat once again, you want me to … ?!
What if we …
Let's assume we ...
How about a picnic next weekend?
I'm suggesting it one last time. Take it or leave it.
Modality determines types of imaginary/non-imaginary events like those described by:
ANOTHERwants/needs/asks to DO THIS.
ANOTHERmay/can/must/should DO THIS.
ANOTHERchooses to DO THIS(non-imaginary).
ANOTHERbelieves that THIShappens.
May I come in?
The gates may open at any time.
You should tell that to your parents.
It'd be better if you were wearing a scarf.
Students shall not argue with professors.
You are not supposed to be here.
The train is to arrive in 5 minutes.
I would rather eat a mango.
I feel that he was lying to me.
I swear I will visit your grandmother on my way home next week.
DES to want to
ASP to hope that
EPC to expect to
CRD to believe that
REQ to request that
EXH to demand that
OPR to have the opportunity to
CPC to have the ability to
PRM to be permitted to
PTN to have the possibility of
CLS must do/have to do
OBG should/ought to
IMS be expected to
ADV suggest that
ITV intend to
ANT look forward to
DSP to be willing to
PRE be ready to
NEC be necessary to
DCV decide to/choose to
PTV tend to/be prone to
VOL offer to/volunteered to
ACC agree to
ICL feel like/be up for
CML feel driven to/feel a need to
DVR like to/enjoy
DVT be devoted to/be committed to
PFT prefer/would rather
IPS to have an impression/feel that; a subjective belief/impression
PMS to promise/swear that
Marks that and how several members of
They built the house together.
One would have had the same opinion in this situation.
They both took part in the Olympic Games.
The team built the house (some made the basement, others made the roof etc.)
My friend and I played chess.
She told me a fairy tale.
They talk to each other.
He helped build the house while she didn't.
I built a house and so did she.
He built a card house for her (and she tried to reproduce it).
The child performed an exercise in skating after her trainer.
I showed her how to build a house.
Still they took me to the zoo (although I didn't want it).
I prepare a sauna for them (so that they may bathe).
I read the text to them (and they got the subtext).
Just make one step at a time.
We work every other day.