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PPS Propositional#

THIS is just a statement not representing anyone's opinion, THIS is an objective truth.

That is a dog.

I am eating a mango.

EPI Epistemic#

THIS is a statement representing cultural knowledge.

That dog is of noble ancestry.

I am eating a mango imported from another country.

ALG Allegative#

THIS is a subjective opinion or interpretation.

The dog is ugly.

Mangoes are good for everyone.

IPU Imputative#

THIS is a statement that one can assume to be true unless more evidence appears.

He takes care of his dog (because the latter looks healthy, who else can take care of the dog?)

He has just eaten a mango (I can see its seeds on the table).

RFU Refutative#

THIS statement is based on cultural knowledge and refutes an earlier statement.

REB Rebuttative#

THIS Propositional statement additionally refutes an earlier statement.

THR Theoretical#

THIS statement is a hypothesis that can be tested for validity.

EXV Expatiative#

THIS statement is hypothesis that might not inherently allow its validation.

AXM Axiomatic#

THIS Propositional statement can't be refuted or argued.

We are on the Earth.

Not drinking water causes thirst.


Validation, also known as “evidential marker” represents how or to what degree THIS is supported by evidence.

Acquired knowledge or direct observation#

Abbreviation Expanded name Verifiable by other speakers Example

Intuition or inference#

Abbreviation Expanded name Type Example
ITU INTUITIVE intuition or feeling I have a feeling that ...
INF INFERENTIAL inference I assume ...

Hearsay Categories. Trustworthy source#

Abbreviation Expanded name The source of the hearsay Example
PSM PRESUMPTIVE can be verified Presumably ...
PSM2 PRESUMPTIVE 2 might be not verifiable Presumably ...
PPT PURPORTIVE can't be verified Purportedly ...

Hearsay Categories. Source may not be trustworthy#

Abbreviation Expanded name The source of the hearsay Example
PPT2 PURPORTIVE 2 can be verified Reportedly ...
CJT CONJECTURAL might be not verifiable Supposedly ...
DUB DUBITATIVE can't be verified Allegedly ...

Hearsay Categories. Source is not trustworthy#

Abbreviation Expanded name The source of the hearsay Example
TEN TENTATIVE can be verified
PUT PUTATIVE might be not verifiable
IPB IMPROBABLE can't be verified


ASR Assertive#

THIS has to be believed by the listener. The listener has to accept SPEAKER's point of view expressed in THIS. Used for explanations and descriptions.

ju'a, ca'e

DIR Directive#

THIS is a mental construct of SPEAKER. Subjunctive/optative/imperative mood. Used for promises, commands. The listener would respond to THIS with obeyance, compliance, granting permission.

ko'oi, ko, e'e, ei, e'i [?] nu'e

IRG Interrogative#

THIS statement has no truth value. Instead, a reply expressing attitude is expected from listeners. THIS can be translated as “yes/no/what do you think?” questions.


ADM Admonitive#

THIS is a warning.

Be careful not to come closer to the bridge.

e'anai o'i

HOR Hortative#

THIS statement is wished to be true.

Wish you were here.


DEC Declarative#

THIS is a declaration, an announcement.

I pronounce you husband and wife

ca'e/sei mi te notci